Since an Adverb Clause in a Complex Sentence is a Subordinate Clause which does the work of an Adverb, it can be of the following kinds :
- Cause or Reason
- Result or Consequence
- Supposition or Concession
ADVERB CLAUSE OF TIME
- Adverb Clauses of Time are introduced by subordinating conjunctions like when, whenever, as, after, since, before, till; as,
I will do it when I please.
As he entered the room all stood up to greet him.
She came after darkness had fallen.
I have not been well since I returned from England.
I haven’t heard from him since he left for the States.
Before you leave this place bring me some milk.
Wait until I come.
The children danced while the piper played.
You can stay here as long as you like.
So long as the rain continued, I remained with my friend.
As soon as I heard the news, I left the place.
No sooner did the thief see the policeman than he ran away.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF PLACE
- Adverb Clauses of Place are introduced by subordinating conjunctions like where, whenever, whence, whither; as,
Where the piper went, the children followed.
The dog followed him wherever he went.
She returned whence she came.
The wind bloweth whither it listeth.
ADVERB CLAUSE OF MANNER
Adverb Clauses of Manner are introduced by subordinating conjunctions like as, as if, as though; as,
Do as you like.
As you sow so shall you reap.
Do to others as you would be done by.
She talked as if she knew everything.
The lioness ran straight on us as though she had been shot.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF CAUSE OR REASON
Adverb Clauses of Cause or Reason are introduced by Subordinating Conjunctions like because, since, as that, as,
The child cried because he was hungry.
Because you have insulted me I shall dismiss you.
Since she says so, I must believe it.
As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
I am glad that you have come.
Now that he has come, let him preside over the meeting.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF PURPOSE
Adverb Clauses of Purpose are introduced by subordinating conjunctions like that (in order that, so that), lest; as,
She takes medicine that she may become well.
We eat that we may live.
Note this down so that you may not forget it.
I worked hard so that I might win a prize.
He spends little in order that he may save some money.
Work hard lest you should fail.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF RESULT OR CONSEQUENCE
Adverb Clauses of Result or Consequence are introduced by the Subordinating Conjunction that (generally preceded by so or such in the Main Clause); but the Conjunction is sometimes understood; as,
He was so weak, that he could hardly stand.
He speaks so fast that I cannot follow him.
He is so brave that he is not afraid of any danger.
She ran so hard that she was out of breath.
I spoke in such a way that he understood me.
It is so far off I cannot see it. [That is understood.]
She was so weak that she could hardly stand.
So bravely did they fight that the enemy had to retreat.
So terrible a disease broke out that thousands died.
So good a man was he that all respected him.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF COMPARISON
Adverb Clauses of Comparison of Degree are introduced by one of the subordinating conjunctions or Relative Adverbs as, than.
As denoting degree is generally accompanied by as or so in the Main Clause; as,
He is as dull as he is fat.
She is as wise as she is beautiful.
He is not so foolish as you think.
Than is always accompanied by a Comparative (Adjective or Adverb) or by words like other in the Main Clause; as,
He is wiser than I thought.
She is younger than she looks.
No one is a better judge than he is. It was no other than it seemed.
NOTE: The Verb of the Clause of Comparison is often not expressed but only understood; as,
She works harder than Lila [does].
He is as tall as his father [is]
ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION
Adverb Clauses of Condition are generally introduced by Subordinating Conjunctions like, if unless, whether; as,
If I make a promise, I keep it.
If it rains, we shall not go out.
If I were you, I would accept the offer.
You will not pass unless you work harder.
Unless it rains, the crops will fail.
I must appear in the examination, whether I pass or not.
NOTE 1: Sometimes the Subordinating Conjunction is omitted in Adverb Clauses of Condition; as,
Had he told the truth, he would not have been punished.
Had I not seen her smoking with my own eyes, I would not have believed it.
Here an angel to tell me such a thing of her, I would not believe it.
NOTE 2: Adverb Clauses of Condition are sometimes introduced by whatever, whichever, however; as,
Whatever you might say, I am not going to change my mind. Whatever road you take, you will not catch the train.
He will never succeed, however hard he tries.
However cleverly you may act, you will not be able to deceive him.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF SUPPOSITION OR CONCESSION
Adverb Clauses of Supposition or Concession are introduced by Subordinating Conjunctions like although, though, even, if; as Although it rained yesterday, we played tennis.
Although I told her not to do it, yet she did it.
He works hard though he is not intelligent.
Though he was rich, he was not happy.
Though he is poor, he is honest.
Even if I fail, I shall not give up hope.
Even if I had the money, I wouldn’t buy a car now.
Exercise 1: Pick out the Adverb Clauses in the following sentences, and say of what kind each is:
- When he was a child, Scott was very delicate.
- He was allowed to go wherever he pleased.
- As you want an answer, I will give you one.
- He died that France might live.
- The prince walked proudly, as if he owned the earth.
- He played with the machine, as a child plays with a toy.
- His sister is younger than he is.
- However rich he may get, he will not grow contented.
- Strike the iron while it is hot.
- Though he is poor, he is honest.
- Unless you work harder, you will fail.
- So good a man is he that all respect him.
- O God, be with us, lest we forget.
- No one can judge better than she can.
- Since you desire it, I will look into the matter.
- She -was as gentle as a dove.
- Play the game, whether you win or lose.
- She had such a pain that she was screaming.
- You may borrow the book so long as you promise to return it within a week.
- If you had asked me, I would have given you the money.
Exercise 2: Pick out the Subordinate Clauses in the following sentences, and say of each whether it is a Noun Clause, an Adverb Clause, or an Adjective Clause:
- What I told you is the whole truth.
- I don’t know when the examinations begin.
- Some people act as though they could do no wrong.
- Though the heavens fall, justice must be done.
- They never fail who die in a great cause.
- The tale is as dull as it is long.
- The place where I was born now lies in ruins.
- I heard that the first speaker was a tailor whose name nobody knew.
- No one knew how deep the pool was.
- He does not speak as well as he writes.
- We sow that we may reap.
- Don’t talk while you are eating.
- He lives longest who works the noblest.
- We all obeyed the order she gave.
- Should you be passing, call in to see me.
- Take an umbrella in case it rains.
- He that is down need fear no fall.
- She made no complaint except that she was tired.
- If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.
- The moment which is lost is lost for ever.
- Now that she has come, let her move the resolution.
- However cleverly you may cheat, you will be found out at last.
- Whatever may be the result, I shall not accept her offer.
- Whether the Rajah likes it or not, he will speak the truth.
- So bravely did they fight that the enemy had to surrender.
Exercise 3: Pick out the Clauses in the following sentences and tell the kind of each.
- The mayor denied that the promise which he had made was binding.
- He said that I was mad when I told him that I wanted to run away from home.
- The man who can play most heartily is generally the man who can work most heartily.
- When the Governor found out why the bell had rung, he ordered that justice should be immediately done to the horse.
- The night which we passed at the inn where we halted was as dark as January.
- I can’t tell you how it happened that my younger brother, who never worked hard at his lessons, stood first in the examination.
- He told me that he thanked God that he never knew what it was to be dishonest.
- I told him that a good man was he who helped his friends when they needed his help most.
- When he was born, who brought him up, where he lived, and how he lived, no one knows.
- He was of the opinion that no man who had any knowledge of the needs of the city would support such a measure.
- She told her father that she had seen her husband’s ring on the finger of the beggar who sat by the side of the garden.
- The teacher who had taken undue interest in the boy became angry with him when he learned that he had not even cared to appear in the examination.
- The Headmaster told the boy that if he behaved in that way again he would be turned out of the school.
- When he arrived the night was so dark that the police could not recognise who the visitor was.
- She spoke so clearly that even those who stood at distance from her could hear every word of what she said.